From a broader perspective, the word jewellery or jewelry features a series of objects derived from different types of organic and inorganic materials. For a long time, a combination of metals and gemstones has been the commonly used material. However, with time, other materials have been embraced including hair, feathers, leather, scales, bones, shells, wood, ceramics, metals, and minerals. On the other hand, the term jewelry designs denote mounted precious or semi-precious stones on objects made of valuable or eye-catching metals such as gold, silver, copper, platinum, and brass. Ideally, jewels are worn in different places. Some are attached to the body while others to the clothes. On the head, crowns, diadems, tiaras, aigrettes, hairpins, hat ornaments, earrings, nose rings, ear plugs, and lip rings are commonly used. Similarly, on the neck, jewelry designs of collars, necklaces, and pendants are used, whereas on pectorals, brooches, clasps, and buttons are well worn on the breast. Further, while, on the limbs rings, bracelets, armlets, and anklets are deployed, at the waist belts and girdles coupled with pendants such as chatelaines, scent cases, and rosaries are used. Today, the information of ancient jewelry designs originates from the preservation of personal objects in tombs. Currently, information regarding jewelry cultures that still exists assumes the shape of surviving paintings and sculpture (Jayne, Andy, and Tom, 2007 p 7). This paper carefully examines Jewellery’s place in the fashion world in the concept of design.
The term jewellery originates from jewel borrowed from old French “joule” meaning plaything. Ideally, the form of jewellery design differs depending on the culture. For instance, in to the European Cultures, a good number of the above-listed jewellery persisted since ancient days (Jayne, Andy, and Tom, 2007 p.7). Historically, Asian design and style endured high influence. A significant number of jewels are made from a broad range of materials including shells and precious metals among others. In most cultures, jewellery symbolizes status depending on the properties of materials used and patterns. Further, the patterns of wearing depend on sex and age attached to culture. However, women are fond of wearing jewelry. In the content of materials and methods, Bronze was commonly used in Roman times. In the contemporary world, jewellery is frequently made of gold, titanium, platinum, palladium, white gold, or silver. Ideally, most gold jewellery comprises of alloy of gold indicated by letter k. In America and UK gold jewellery must follow a standard of at least 10k and 9k respectively. In both countries, high levels of quality at 22k and 24k are not typical because they are deemed very soft for jewellery (Jayne, Andy, and Tom, 2007 p 9). Further, stainless steels are commonly used in costume jewellery. Further, Opals is attached with Australia. The change in colors makes it outstanding. Similarly, Emeralds and silvers are found in India, Jaipur. Isreal is known for better bargaining power of the diamond. Additionally, the Italy’s Murano glass jewellery is characterised by superior quality (Natalia & Faberge, 2014 p.56).
JEWELLERY DESIGN BASED ON COUNTRY OF ORIGIN AND PERIOD
Bead embroidery design
Beaded jewellery constitutes of earrings, bracelets, belts, necklaces, and rings. Ideally, beads vary in size, small or large. The small size also known as seed beads are mostly used for the “woven” style of beaded jewellery as well as embroidery technique. Ideally, bead embroidery is very common in African cultures. Further, advanced glass bead making techniques features designed crystalline glass, smalto, goldstone, millefiori, and lattimo. This is powered by methods such as carving forging, casting, cutting, and welding (York Newspaper Company, 2014).
The Asian techniques and design of jewelry continues to influence the modern jewelry. India is attached to bead necklaces, gold fillets and earrings, as well as metal and pottery bangles. Currently, Indian goldsmith’s techniques are commonly evidenced in West including enameled, granulated, soldered, and filigreed work of considerable refinement. Examples of Indian design include a crescent-shaped gold brooch featuring granulated gold balls, pendants, gold and enameled turban ornaments derived from Jaipur, Rajputana. In Persia, male and female wear vibrant jewelry head- necklaces, gear, and earrings. The design materials used are characterised by enameled gold. Currently, in different places, the same techniques are deployed in the making of charms and amulets more so in Iran. In China, Silver and gold were repeatedly enameled in blue, a favorite color, and often decorated with blue kingfisher feathers. Buddist symbols such as Dragons and Phoenixes are featured in Asian design.
The huge continent of Africa has generated jewelry of exceptional beauty. Rings, bracelets, earrings, and other ornaments were made from gold in Ghana. The same jewels were made from amber, ivory and brass, and bronze in Songhai, Benin and Yoruba respectively. All over Africa, beads of both shells and glass forms essential elements of personal adornment. Currently, African jewelry echoes traditional themes powered by modern materials (Natalia & Faberge, 2014 p. 58).
The prehistoric Egyptians were conversant with most processes of ornamenting metal still in use today. Modeled chased, soldered, engraved, repouss and inlaid jewelry using gold and silver were commonly embraced designs. Further, the two metals (gold and silver) were inlaid with semi-precious stones for instance carnelian, amethyst, turquoise, jasper, and lapis lazuli.
The major jewelry design incorporated diadems, wide bead necklaces or collars, square pectorals, hoop, hinged or bead bracelets, and rings. Signet ring was the most popular. The jewelry design patterns included Lotus, falcon, serpent, and eye, some of which were derived from religious symbols.
Greek and Roman Jewelry
Trojan and Cretan designed a common type of earrings, bracelets, and necklaces. Typically, their work was made up of thin coils, linked chains, plaited wire, and thin foil, which were formed into petals and rosettes. Further, both stamping and enameling techniques were familiar. Spiral and natural patterns cuttlefish, starfish, and butterflies prevailed. Further, jewelry designs located at Mycenae and Crete, currently referred as the National Museum located in Athens features a vast number of small gold disks. They are usually perforated so that they may perhaps be attached to the clothing. Further, the Archaic Greek jewelry and Etruscan were inspired by Egyptian and Assyrian. The technique used were consistent, embossed and granulation. With time, granulation techniques become outdated following the reappearance of enamel and filigree. Ideally, flowers and tassels were used to decorate gold necklaces. The pattern used includes winged victories, pendant vases, cupids, and doves among others (Hxblog, n.d).
Roman jewelry resulted from a combination of Roman artistic tradition (gold filigree and the fibula form) with the Byzantine cloisonn tradition. This design was enhanced by regional variations such as fibular and pin like brooch technique became circular. The common patterns include stylized animals and intricate interlacing. Garnet slices such as enamel were used in significant practice in medieval jewelry. The prominent Alfred jewel is a grand example of cloisonn. Further, brooches were primary forms of jewelry. Additionally, chased pendants of a crucifix symbolised religious (York Newspaper Company, 2014).
Middle Eastern Jewelry
Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian tombs have resulted in vast quality of necklaces, headdresses, earrings and animal talisman figures in gold, silver, and gems. Ideally, diadem from Ur designed in the shape of thin gold beech leaves is a grand example. Elegant silver and gold jewelry designs were made using granulation techniques. Ideally, currently, the method features surfaces decorated using clusters of petite grains of gold. Other techniques used include filigree, inlaid gems, and cloisonne and champleve enamel.
Byzantine Jewelry from Gold, Bronze, and Enamel
A grand characterised of Byzantine earring features the crescent shape made of gold repouss with a central cross in a sphere edged by peacocks. Further, the cross and jewelled pendant were very popular. In terms of finger rings, Christian symbols were oftenly made of bronze. Enamel work particularly cloisonn was highly refined in line with Byzantine culture. Currently, cloisonn enamel has an enormous impact on European jewelry for instance Crown of Constance of Aragon
Gorgeous color, sculptural and architectural design characterised Renaissance jewelry. Ideally, the sculptural pendant featured a combination of colored gems, irregular pearls and enameling. Brooches are very common. Further, necklaces, chains, and girdles were fashionable. Additionally, Phoenix jewel is very famous example of Renaissance jeweled pendants (Rust, 2001 p.45).
The 17th and 18th Centuries Jewelry
Diamond jewelry was a conservative design representing change in clothes and art fashions. Courtesy of faceting gems method, diamond becomes the preferred stone for precious jewelry. Other than Diamond tiaras, brooches and rings characterised by natural design were inspired by Gothic, Renaissance, and Egyptian style. On top of gold, materials used include base- metal alloys, steel, and cast iron. Mechanical process coupled with pattern cut out was the commonly used techniques. Ideally, Parure was a very popular women design.
20th Century Jewelry
In Paris, goldsmith’s art featuring different themes derived from plants, insect and birds is an attractive design. The primary design emphasis was the cost of material. They included an enamel, glass, ivory, and oftenly use semi precious stones and gems. Some jewel represented design for its sake other than certain a purpose. The modern designs in United States make use of semi-precious stones, silver, hammered copper, and other pocket-friendly materials. Inexpensive jewelry makes use of plastics. In 20th century, neck chains, bracelets, and earrings are not only worn by women but also men (Heather, 2000 p. 36).
Gone are days when accessories were only attached to women. Currently, jewels are worn by both men and women. Ideally, most jewelries suit a certain culture using different materials. For a while, a mixture of metals and gemstones were the commonly used material. However, with time, other materials including hair, feathers, leather, scales, bones, shells, wood, ceramics, metals, and minerals have been embraced. There exists different jewelry design based on materials and techniques used. For instance, the bead jewelries are commonly attached to Africa. Powered by embroidery technique, beaded jewelries are available in two sizes, small and big. Different trends of jewelry design are evidenced in various regions. However, Asian jewelry has considerable influence in the jewelry sector.
Heather, B.S. (2000). Jewerly: Symbols of devotion, Hearst Magazines, a Division of Hearst Communications, Inc, New York.
Jayne W., Andy D., and Tom F. (2007). The significant other: the value of jewellery in the conception, design and experience of body focused digital devices, AI and Soc 22 p. 53- 62
Rust, C. (2001). Native American art, F & W Publications, Inc, Cincinnati.
Natalia S. & Faberge (2014). Hue is the jewel cue, Living Media India, Limited, New Delhi. York Newspaper Company, (2014). Art, music at Timbers in Gretna, York, Pa.
Hxblog, (n.d). Kinds of jewerly Designs along the History of Egypt, Middle East and more http://www.holidayextras.co.uk/hxblog/travel-tips/best-places-in-the-world-for- jewellery.html