Biology论文模板 – Route for Future Bioenergy Generation

Abstract

       Bioenergy has so far has been making important progress towards the realization of the global energy needs. The contribution of Bioenergy in the contemporary world is very significant and it can still be extended in the coming years.  At present, the amount of energy that is produced by the biomass is around 50 EJ1 across the world. This implies that the bioenergy production across the world is at 10% of the total global energy used every year. Notably, the use of biofuels has tremendously been on the improvement across the globe with most pants that produce the biofuels being on the path to improving their technologies that aim to increase the volume of biofuels produced and improvement of production techniques to inhibit emission of gasses that may be unfriendly to the environment. In the modern global biofuel development, the markets are continuously expanding due to stunning economics, predominantly associated with domestic heat distribution

ROUTE FOR FUTURE BIOENERGY GENERATION

Introduction

       Bioenergy has so far has been making important progress towards the realization of the global energy needs. The contribution of Bio-energy in the contemporary world and it can still be extended in the coming years. This has made it for the environmental conservation bodies to develop suitable measures through which the environmental conservation measures aimed at reducing the greenhouse gasses can work best. Bioenergy development is essential in meeting the objectives of global development as it offers both social and economic advantages and provides a couple of benefits to the environment (Agarwal 2007). Bioenergy development has so far being a significant contribution to the conservation of natural resources and reducing the level of waste.

       The study of Bio-technology is of great significant in the social, environmental and economic well-being of in future development across the globe as well as analyzing the benefits associated with the use of Bio-energy. This paper focuses on comprehending the usage of Bio-energy, current developments that have been acquired and the future advancements. It also highlights key contributions that Bio-Energy development has had to the development across the world as well as environmental conservation (Alonso 2010).

Discussion

       Bio-energy can contribute between a quarter, and a third of the main energy distribution cross the world by the year 2050. Bio-energy is the sole inexhaustible energy origin that could be used in the place of the fossil energy across the energy markets in the world. Bo-energy has been a significant source of heat, electricity, and transportation energy (Atsumi 2008). The majority of the bioenergy pathways could be utilized to alter a variety of biomass feedstock to form an end fuel commodity.

       Advancement in technologies through which heat and energy are created from the biomass have already been established and entirely commercialized as the foremost development pathways to both transport and bioenergy (Brennan 2010). A variety of additional alteration technologies is being created, providing the anticipations of increased effectiveness, reduced costs as well as the enhanced execution of the environment.

       Nevertheless, an extension of biofuels too is associated with some problems. The potential demand for the land, as well as raw materials and the other utilizations of the biomass, needs to be governed properly. Food yielding, as well as the biomass feedstock, are required to be expanded by enhancement of agricultural operations (Demirbas 2007).

Biomass Resources

        In the contemporary world, agriculture, forestry, municipal residues as well as wastes are primary feedstock through which production of electricity and heat originating from the biomass is done. Moreover, there is the utilization of reduced amount of sugar, vegetable oil and grains in the generation of liquid bio energies (Gouveia 2009).  At present, the amount of energy that is produced by the biomass is around 50 EJ1 across the world. This implies that the bioenergy production across the world is at 10% of the total global energy used every year. It is majorly the indigenous biomass that was utilized in cooking as well as heating (Greene 2004).

        There is a high possibility of increasing the utilization of biomass through trapping the huge amounts of unutilized residues as well as wastes Utilization of the conventional vegetation for power utilization can too be increased. However, there should be the careful reflection of land vacancy and the food needs (Hannon 2010).  In the middle term, herbaceous and the woody crops need to be cultivated in marginal, increased amounts and the agricultural lands that have been overused for a long time leading to its degradation. This will play a significant role in the provision of large volumes of the biomass resources. In the long run, algae which comprise the aquatic biomass will also have some significant benefactions (Hill 2006).

        By the different varieties of the feedstock, the complex prospective for the biomass is projected to be more than 1500 EJ per year by the year 2050. However the majority of the biomass distribution scenarios that considers the viable complexities illustrates a yearly prospective that is between 200 and 500 EJ per year (Himmel 2007). It is important too, however, note that this does not include the aquatic biomass such as the algae. While forestry and agricultural biomass wastes are combined, they offer 50- 150EJ every year. The remaining amount of biomass is achieved from the power vegetation, excessive forestry growth and raised agricultural efficiency (Lynd 2008).

       The expected global predominant power demand by the year 2050 is anticipated to amount between 600 and 1000 EJ. This is when the demand is contrasted to the 2008 demand level. The instances that have had an overview of the power origins shows that the use of biofuels in the coming years could reach up to 250EJ level each year (Naik 2010). This level of bioenergy demand is well within the estimated level of sustainable distribution prospective projection. Therefore, it is important to make some assumptions that biomass could be important for the enhancement of sustainability in energy use across the world by making a significant contribution to the quarter or even the third of the projected energy demand in the global energy usage future (Nigam 2011).

 Development in the utilization of biomass materials in the present time up to the year 2030 will entirely depend on some demand and distribution side components. Strong inexhaustible power aims being developed at the national and the regional levels (Ragauskas 2006). For instance, the European power regulations have a high likeliness to amount into an important rise in demand. Therefore, this increase in demand has a high likeliness to be achieved via the risen utilization of the wastes as well as the residues. More so, it will also be realized by the use of starch, sugar and oil vegetation and more so the risen lignocellulosic vegetation (Righelato 2007).

 The usage of bioenergy is, however; affected by some factors that will include the cost of creating the bioenergy, logistics that will evaluate the supply and availability of biomass crops as well as residues and the relevant distribution structures. It will also be affected by the available resources and issues that impact the environment (Rubin 2008). These factors, therefore, must be clearly analyzed so as to clearly comprehend the possibility of producing sustainable biofuels.

 For the world to realize the biofuels prospective targets in future, the policies formulated by diverse governments as well as industrial attempts requires focusing on raising the level of biomass harvest as well as modernizing crop production in regions such as Africa, Latin America, and the Far East. This will directly raise the level of food yield across the world and eventually the materials that are required for the production of biofuels (Schenk 2008).  Achievement of this global objective would be enhanced by the modernization of technology and the use of competent methods in agricultural production. The use of biofuels is associated with some benefits in that it will minimize the risks involved in the environment. Therefore, therefore, there is a need to advocate for the use of biofuels across the world (Somerville 2010).

Technologies Used in Biomass Change

       There is some biofuels path that can be utilized to change the raw biomass feedstock to form the final power commodity.  Some changing technologies have been evolved. These technologies are adapted to a variety of diverse physical formations as well as the feedstock chemical makeup. Their adaptations also differ with the power services that is needed, for instance, heat, electricity and fuel for transport (Tilman 2006). Improving the biomass technologies in the feedstock are things heat are being undertaken and created to change the large volumes of biomass to denser as well as more usable power carriers so as to enhance the effectiveness of transport, convenient utilization, storage and later changing process.

       Creation of heat through the direct burning of the biomass is the foremost biofuel application across the globe. One of the advantages of this practice is that it is cost effective with fossil energy options. Biofuels creation technologies vary from the elementary stoves to the more complex contemporary appliances. To have a more effective utilization of biomass power, it is important to develop contemporary, and large-scale heat utilities joined with electricity creation and energy structures (CHP) (Tilman 2009).

       Diverse technologies are available or are created to enhance the creation of electricity from the biomass.  Co-burning in the energy plants that sue coal, it is the most cost-efficient utilization of biomass for energy production. Plants that have been regularly involved in the burning of the biomass, encompassing MSW burning factories are too triumphant in commercial functions, and most of them are either industrial or district heating equipment. Today, most fossil burning factories have opted to use anaerobic digestion as it has been linked to many advantages than the other methods in the creation of electricity as well as heat from the biomass (United Nations Environment Programme 2010). .Despite the fact that this is an economic case, it entirely depends on the presence of reduced cost feedstock. The overall technologies have been well developed and are commercially present.

       A limited number of instances of commercial chemical change factories, as well as the establishment of this technology, is impacted by the less complexity as well as cost. In the long run, if viable and cost effective operations of biomass plants can be noted, chemical change process offers more efficiency, enhanced economics both at the large and small scale as well as reduced gas production contrasted with alternative biomass-based energy creation choices. Alternative technologies like Organic Rankine Sequence and the Stirling are contemporarily in the illustration phase and could show economical sustainability in a variety of small-scale discharge (Wijffels 2010).

 The first phase of bioenergy encounters social as well as environmental problems, widely because they utilize food vegetation which could result in the rise of food costs and to some extent changes in the use of land. However, such threats can be resolved through regulation as well as viability guarantee and acceptance, technology advancement. Presently, technology continues to advance for the coming generation processes that depend on the biomass that is not food in nature, for instance, the lignocellulose (Yazdani 2010). Utilization of this feedstock in the second phase of bioenergy creation would importantly reduce the prospect pressure on a utilization of the land, enhance improvement of the greenhouse gas production when contrasted to the first phase production of bioenergy.

 Notably, the use of biofuels has tremendously been on the improvement across the globe with most pants that produce the biofuels being on the path to improving their technologies that aim to increase the volume of biofuels produced and improvement of production techniques to inhibit emission of gasses that may be unfriendly to the environment. This has been noted in some industries that have adopted the new technological advancement in their second phase of biofuels production. More still continues to advance in the production process and the usage of biofuels through the development of appliances that best suits the use of biofuels.

Bioenergy Markets

       The primary utilization of biomass in the contemporary development of biofuels comprises of energy wood utilized in non-commercial discharge particularly in the ineffective stoves used in domestic heating as well as cooking in emerging economies where the contribution of biomass constitutes 22% of overall power mix. This indigenous utilization of biomass is anticipated to increase with the rise of global population. However, there is a remarkable scope to ameliorate its effectiveness as well as environmental execution, and thereby, assist in minimizing the use of biomass and associated effects (Schenk 2008).

       In the states that have already been industrialized, the overall contribution of contemporary biomass is so far 3% of the overall predominant power and comprise mainly of heat solely and heat as well as energy enactment. In the modern global biofuel development, the markets are continuously expanding due to stunning economics, predominantly associated with domestic heat distribution (Schenk 2008).

 Contemporary, the fastest developing biofuels are the transport biofuels that receive much of the public focus. Nevertheless, today they only stand for just 1.5% of the overall road transport energy use and just 2% of the overall biofuels. They are, nevertheless, anticipated to a very significant responsibility in realizing the need for the road transport energy with the second phase of bioenergy rising the significance over the coming 20 years (Tilman 2009). Even under the business-as-usual instances, bioenergy creation is anticipated to rise by a component of 10-20 relatives to the contemporary levels by the year 2030.

       The hunt for viable power structure will need more biofuel than the development anticipated under the business-as-usual setting.  Various biomass distribution sequence, as well as market threats as well as challenges, will require being inscribed and resolved to permit the stronger viable development of the biofuel field (Agarwal 2007). These will comprise; protection of the feedstock distribution, the economics of scale as well as logistics, competition in the markets and the public and non-governmental organizations acceptance. Nevertheless, the firm is very sure that the problems that face the sector can be resolved as challenges that appear alike have been resolved in the other fields and effective technologies, as well as operations, are still being advanced and used.

Conclusion

       In conclusion, the current development of biofuels has played a significant role in meeting the global energy viability objective that has been projected by the year 2050. Currently, there has been an advancement in technologies that revolve around the production of energy. Many countries have now begun adapting the use of bioenergy in different sectors. For instance, biofuels have been used as a fuel in the transportation sector and production of energy. Moreover, there have been increased use of the biofuels in heating both in domestic and industrial operations.

 Biofuel production is on the increase especially in the transportation sector which records the highest growth rate. It has been noted that the predominant use of energy in different states has been on the shift as many operations including industrial operations have adopted biofuels. Biofuels have been associated with some benefits that include; safeguarding the environment against pollution and reduction of gasses emission from the industries.

       However, there have been a shift in the overall usage of land with the rising use of biofuels. This, therefore, renders to consideration of some factors associated with the changes in the use of land and the overall food needs across the world. It is important for different states across the world to adopt biotechnology as it will contribute to the realization of the 2050 global energy sustainability objective. It will also play a significant role in achieving the global environmental protection against pollution through emissions of poisonous gasses and development of inexhaustible fuels.

FIG 1.1 Bioenergy Lifecycle

Fig: Bioenergy Cycle: This picture illustrates the bioenergy cycle. The cycle illustrates the formation of the bioenergy and the use in energy production, transport, industry and products such as oil and cosmetics. The main source of bioenergy as illustrated in the diagram is manure, organic waste, bioenergy crops and crop residues. Retrieved from: (https://www.google.com/search?q=images+of+bioenergy+lifecycle&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=)67&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq8ej5hMjMAhWHMhoKHVEYCAsQsAQIGw)

                                               FIG 1.2 Renewable Energy Statistics

Fig: The diagram above shows the level of renewable energy production since 2006 to 2013. From the diagram, it is observed that there has been a steady rise in the level of renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generated include bioenergy, onshore wind, solar PV, hydro, offshore, waves and tidal. Retrieved from (https://www.google.com/search?q=images+of+bioenergy+lifecycle&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq8ej5hMjMAhWHMhoKHVEYCAsQsAQIGw#tbm=isch&q=Images+of+renewable+energy+production+statistics).

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