English论文模板 – Bad Parenting Cause Psychological Woes in Children

According to psychologist Sigmund Freud, individuals’ personal growth and development are explained by events in their early life. However, some of his opinions are now old-fashioned. Some contemporary psychological theoretical frameworks also indicate that childhood experiences may be crucial in shaping individuals’ wellbeing and life. However, some researchers such as Behere, Basnet, & Campbell (2017) have raised serious concerns on whether difficult childhood may result in typical psychological issues such as depression or anxiety in later stages of an individual’s development. It is less surprising that many caregivers and parents are primary elements in an individual’s development. Early experiences possess profound and long-lasting implications on children, either negative or positive. Besides, negative child issues or experiences can sometimes result in distress or harm and may challenge a child’s psychological or physical development to some level (Ogundele, 2018). Examples of such experiences may revolve around parental divorce, maltreatment, poverty, or the parent’s demise. For this reason, bad parenting may cause psychological woes for children since disruption in the family structure affects the child’s stability both emotionally and psychologically.

       Research has established connections between specific life experiences and adverse outcomes, with some implications extending into an individual’s adult life. For instance, separation or loss of a parent, parental divorce, or living with a mentally ill parent or carer has been established to increase the risks of developing psychological woes in an individual’s lifespan. Some of these experiences are common and happen around the globe. Approximately half of the adults in developed countries have gone through similar experiences. Research such as Ogundele (2018) has shown that parental divorce causes depression risk in children. The research revolved around 18 studies that were published over the last 35 years. This research indicates that individuals who experienced parental divorces in their childhood are 56% likely to experience psychological woes such as depression or anxiety in their adulthood.

       In the contemporary era, it is acknowledged that childhood adversities are mostly interconnected. For instance, parental divorce may result in to change in the family’s social-economic status. Research has also shown that accumulating adverse conditions increases the risks of various psychological woes and mental health problems, culminating in suicide. Bryant et al. (2018) attempt to explore some of the reason exposure to such issues may result in an individual’s vulnerability to psychological woes. For instance, divorce is one of the challenging issues for adults since it is associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. But individuals who have gone through early negative issues suffer an even greater danger of developing adverse circumstances due to divorce.

       Experiencing adversities in childhood may fail to make an individual vulnerable. Bryant et al. (2018) argue that some children never experience the adverse implications even in the advent of severe multiple negative issues. In psychology, this trait is known as resilience. Under such circumstances, the adverse conditions strengthen stress resistance (Yorke et al., (2018). It is possible to know a resilient person whenever they go through tough times since they develop the capacity to manage their behavior, enabling them to cope with their stress successfully in the future.

       How children react to adverse or stressful events in their lives relies on a combination of complex factors such as their temperament, genes, and cognitive ability (Behere, Basnet, & Campbell, 2017). There is ongoing research to establish the level at which each of these issues determines whether a person develops resilience. For this purpose, it is necessary to recognize that misfortunes in childhood traumas are unavoidable. Reardon et al. (2017) argue that even in an individual’s adult life, it is not difficult to reverse or prevent outcomes, even from severe ones such as emotional or physical abuse and neglect. However, many individuals find it easier to blame their carers or parents for their psychological issues (Reardon et al., 2017). It may appear that establishing the source of the pain may be useful. However, research has shown that blaming parents or caregivers may not help individuals forget or move away from the negative consequences of challenging situations.

       Individuals that dwell on adversities in their childhood, such as abuse by blaming themselves or others, possess an extensive risk of suffering from psychological woes relative to those that do not. For this reason, Yorke et al. (2018) suggest that psychological processes such as blaming parents may be more dangerous and harmful for psychological health relative to experiences that happened in the past. For this reason, if an individual wants to overcome their psychological woes, they need to stop the blame game and concreters on the present by taking control of their life.

       In conclusion, disruption in the family structure and functioning may cause adverse events affecting both the parent’s and children’s psychological well-being and mental health. However, not all disruptions possess equal implications. Moreover, behavioral and emotional problems happen in families disrupted by divorce relative to others. There are also several attributes identified in both children and caregivers or parents that act as risk factors. Parent’s substance abuse, depression levels, history of divorce, poverty are some of the identified risk factors that can cause psychological woes in a child when they grow up. Such issues may lead to poor parenting of children, which in the process may lead to stress-related conditions such as depression and anxiety in their lifetime.


Behere, A. P., Basnet, P., & Campbell, P. (2017). Effects of family structure on mental health of children: A preliminary study. Indian journal of psychological medicine39(4), 457-463.

Bryant, R. A., Edwards, B., Creamer, M., O’Donnell, M., Forbes, D., Felmingham, K. L., … & Hadzi-Pavlovic, D. (2018). The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on refugees’ parenting and their children’s mental health: a cohort study. The Lancet Public Health3(5), e249-e258.

Ogundele, M. O. (2018). Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians. World journal of clinical pediatrics7(1), 9.

Reardon, T., Harvey, K., Baranowska, M., O’Brien, D., Smith, L., & Creswell, C. (2017). What do parents perceive are the barriers and facilitators to accessing psychological treatment for mental health problems in children and adolescents? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. European child & adolescent psychiatry26(6), 623-647.

Yorke, I., White, P., Weston, A., Rafla, M., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2018). The association between emotional and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder and psychological distress in their parents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders48(10), 3393-3415.

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