English论文模板 – The Impact of Technology on Education

Technology integration in a classroom setting has remained an essential element in teaching and learning over several decades (Bakir 21). This realization and the fact that teachers continues to encounter challenges in implementing the best teaching models through technology teaching practices have resulted in resource allocation from the federal, state, and local levels to prepare teachers to teach using technology. Furthermore, the analysis by Bhosale et al. (219) further opines that the 21st century is regarded as an era of technological advancement. The fact that technology plays an essential role in our life is not in doubt. It is worth noting that it has been viewed as the basis of the growth of an economy, with a significant role being played in the education sector. Technology has been able to provide students with an opportunity to access information quickly and accelerated learning. Technology is now being adopted in the education setup, although its application is still experiencing challenges. Among the challenges witnessed include inadequate understanding of how to use technology in classes using a straightforward approach (Raja 33). The acceptance of technology in education has taken two forms, mainly for teaching and learning purposes.

Additionally, the result of the digital revolution is what has motivated the world of education to experience a massive transformation constantly. The transformation that has been witnessed as a result of technological evolution in education can be compared to the 19th century transition from apprenticeship. Therefore, technology will establish how it into the education system impacts learners and the learning process. Therefore, advancements in technology, despite imminent challenges, play a crucial role in the transforming nature of education. Its integration is a faster way of reaching and educating a mass number of students.

Undoubtedly, the Advent of the 21st century was characterized as an age of technological change (Bhosale et al. 219). The fact that technology plays a crucial role in the life of humanity is what has prompted its adoption in various sectors of life, with education being one of them. According to Bhosale et al. (220), the significance of this change in education has been motivated by the fact that an economy that is unfortunate in technology is unlikely to grow in the current global situation. This same perspective has been shared by Collins et al. (1), who opines that the world of education is currently undergoing a massive transformation due to the digital revolution. This change can only be compared to the transition experienced from apprenticeship to the concept of universal schooling in the 19th century due to the industrial revolution (Collins et al. 1). The need for people to learn with simplified tools is what is currently being witnessed in the global world. For instance, the American education system is defined by learning through the aid of new technologies. 

The past educational system was not characterized by the use of computers. In the past, there was a manual way of carrying out research and teaching where a teacher would prepare handwritten notes together with a tedious lesson plan. This manual way is because the voluminous content covered was tiring and challenging to scroll through. However, the current educational environment is now informed by emerging forms of technologies that are considered to be part and parcel of humanity (Koç et al. 286). The research conducted by Bakir (21) adds to this discourse by stating that the application of technology remains an integral part of learning and teaching process. Teachers have also appreciated the important role that technology is playing in facilitating education in the classroom. For instance, Brenner and Brill (137) note that teachers have embraced instructional technology integration strategies and practices that play a major role in transferring technology integration knowledge and skills in their careers. Furthermore, as pointed out by Bakir (21), education trends in the future will ride the growing interest in internet potential and higher bandwidth. As a result, lacking innovative technologies in education will be a thing of the past, with educators looking to address challenges due to technological evolution.

It is worth noting that teachers were used to preparing notes before coming to class in the past. In addition, they would prepare a given outline that will be shared with the students during the lessons. While this was an important way of learning, it has since been overtaken by emerging technology. This transference is due to moving from the traditional way of copying notes in hard copies to an easy way of doing so through software. For instance, the previous ways of teaching, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors have been displaced. Teachers and students have now enacted new ways through which they engage with each other at any time. This change has resulted in the intensification of the teacher-student relationship compared to how it was in the past. Consequently, the resulting outcome of technology as noted by Raja and Nagasubramani (33) adds to this insight by illustrating that in embracing contemporary tools used by teachers in classrooms has increased the learning and interactivity of students. There are various ways through which technology has impacted the learning environment. Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) has led to the limited use of personal computers, as people prefer the use of modern mobile phone technologies (Koç et al. 288). As noted by Hamidi and Chavoshi (1053), students have accepted the use of technology in education because it provides an easy way to ace information. In addition, it supports accelerated learning, especially for those who are unable to join classes physically. The result of technology use in education is that it has ensured that students are able to explore new areas in their subjects deepening understanding of the challenges involved.

The study by Hamidi and Chavoshi (1053), undertakes to illustrate how the learning environment is using mobile learning in higher education and the impact it is having among students and teachers. According to Hamidi and Chavoshi (1053), scholars find it a useful tool in researching, an opportunity for growth and continuous learning. Furthermore, the flexibility with which technology offers learning opportunities prompts scholars to embrace it more and more (Hamidi and Chavoshi 1054). Incorporating technology in education can be noted in seven main dimensions. One is based on the fact that it is easy to use. Raja and Nagasubramani (33) supported this perspective, state that the transfer of knowledge from one area to another becomes very easy and convenient through technology in education. In addition, it is an effective way of learning in the current global environment. The second category is informed by trust (Hamidi and Chavoshi 1054). For instance, Dorner and Kumar (48) state that the criterion used in virtual mentoring by teachers is characterized by a reciprocal relationship conducted at a distance. As a result, it involves regular contact and a trusting relationship. Accordingly, Hamidi and Chavoshi (1053) listed the other classifications, including the traits and personalities, the context, the environment that encourages the use of modern technologies, behavioral intention, and perceived usefulness.  

Collins et al. (3) offer insight into the new dimension of education system motivated by rising use of technology. The authors support the ideology that schools will remain an important center for learning, despite the use of technology in education. Schools, which were dominant in the apprenticeship era, will continue to be prevalent in whichever education system comes into being in the future (Collins et al. 3). One area that has been examined by Collins et al. (3) is homeschooling which continues to increase in America over the last 30 years. A survey that was conducted in 2013 by the United States Department of Education noted that there were an estimated 1.1 million children who were homeschooling (Collins et al. 3). In addition to this, this survey highlighted that 21% of the families that considered homeschooling hired the tutoring services, while 41% used distance learning. Thus, programs developed for computers are slowly displacing the role of tutors, with parents now left as the sole facilitators of learning. On the other hand, several academic institutions have adopted the use of technology and are now providing smartphone usage for the students and staff (Koç et al. 288). The fact that institutions such as Sakarya University’s SABIS, Bogaziçi University’s COBS, and Middle East Technical University’s METU Portal have adopted the use of technology in education is an indication that it is the way to go in teaching and learning. Students are changing their ways of learning and institutions that are yet to adopt to technological change will be left behind in a fast changing world.

There are various dynamics through which methods are used in education. One of the methods is through the provision of online learning opportunities. Collins et al.  (3), note that the use of the internet as an education tool is continuing to attract more students and teachers. One of the universities that are leading in this field is the University of Phoenix. According to Collins et al.  (3), the University of Phoenix has close to 100,000 in-school students and 30,000 online students. Many other states are also experiencing virtual high school programs where teachers are now motivated to offer online courses. For instance, there are 35,000 online students in Utah, while Florida has 21,000 online students on this path (Collins et al. 3). The use of visual effects, music, videos, and photos has brought learning to life in schools. In addition, teachers have embraced the use of slideshows and digital presentations, which guest speakers in forums can also use. These methods are termed as a creative way that teachers use to boost learning and engage students.

As already stated above, online teaching methods are some of the areas that are now being used in education. Notably, Dorner and Kumar (49), elaborates on online collaborative mentoring for technology in pre-service teacher education. In their research, the authors note that the mentored innovation model is described as an online collaborative mentoring model that was developed in Hungary. The result of this approach is that it has assisted teachers to integrate technology in the classroom setting in meaningful ways (Dorner and Kumar 50). The Mentored Innovation Model has been able to combine an online modular approach of formal pedagogical ICT training with the informal online community experience of sharing (Dorner and Kumar 50). The article by Dorner and Kumar (51) further highlights how teachers are now being supported in embracing technological innovation in Hungary. The model has been effective in supporting teacher education through self-efficacy and mentoring satisfaction.

The aspect of 3D technology is another area and method that is used in teaching and education. According to Ford and Minshall (1), the emergence of additive manufacturing and 3D printing technologies has been able to introduce opportunities for new teaching practices in various subjects and educational settings. The investigation on 3D concept has been able to illustrate six use categories with one being teaching students about 3D printing. It is essential to note that by teaching about 3D concept, educators have been able to offer students with an opportunity of experiencing their projects through actual creation of what they are doing. The second perspective is that the educators also get an opportunity of learning about 3D printing. The third perspective of 3D is that it supports technology in the teaching process. The production of artefacts that assist in learning is the other perspective of 3D printing. 3D printing has also been able to create assistive technologies and lastly, it is able to support outreach activities (Ford and Minshall, 2). The various forms of technologies such as 3D printing and use of videos and slides in education has created a shift from the old ways of doing things. It is not only seating in classroom and listening to the teacher but an interactive session with the students. This is a platform where the teacher is not at the center, but acts as a facilitator of learning with students having to take charge and responsibility of the process.

Mobile learning as defined by Hamidi and Chavoshi (1054) refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes through the use of mobile technologies. Learning services can therefore plan an increasing and effective role in education because of the increasing coverage of mobile networks. The capabilities of teachers have increased tremendously as a result of the use of mobile learning and digital communication in education. The research by Saif et al (45), noted that mobile learning and digital communication are some of the known advanced tools of getting competitive edge in education. Their research, in investigating the adaptation of mobile acceptance model among teachers in the District of Bannu, concluded that teacher performance indicated 51% increase in their knowledge as a result of mobile application in their studies. The mobile devices in education have created special facilities that facilitates the sending and saving the learning content to learn among others.

In the reflection by various authors above, it is evident that technology in education continues to play a major role in assisting educators and teachers in the learning process. This is a great step from the traditional way of teaching. However, there are those who opine that technology in education has created disruption. Brenner and Brill (139), in investigating practices in teacher education that promote and inhibit technology integration transfer in early career teachers note that it requires management and training. This insufficient implementation of computer simulations in education is because of material challenges such as shortage of infrastructure and software in schools. In addition, the need for qualified and ongoing technical support is another area that contributes to the insufficient implementation of technology in education. The disparity witnessed across various states is another area that is raising concern about the adoption and use of technology in schools. For instance, Collins et al. (3) highlights how the University of Phoenix continues to lead in technological adoption as compared to other universities. This is an indication that students and those who have an opportunity to associate with this university will be way ahead as compared to the rest of the country. For instance, the university offers an opportunity for students to meet their goals with online courses and certificates. These courses include professional development courses that involve skills-based training lasting 30 hours. The continuing teacher education courses is another option for undergraduate and graduate. This course lasts for 4-6 weeks and is instructor-led format while the professional development courses are in a self-led format.

This is an effective step towards adopting technology, but at the same time, it shows that there is a high level of disparity among states and adoption to technology such as e-learning. Disruptive technology has also been witnessed through its limitation. The use of mobile learning in classrooms affects normal learning as students may be able to pay much attention to mobile communication as compared to mobile learning.

There is an analysis that has been given by Collins et al. (2) on the central challenge of using technology in education. As noted by Collins et al. (2), the current challenge is associated with whether the current schools are able to adapt and incorporate the new power of technology-driven learning for the next generation of public schooling. This orientation is able to give wealthier students the upper hand, where they continue pursuing learning outside of public institutions while the poor community are confined in classrooms for lack of resources. The authors go further to highlight some of the deep incompatibilities that exist between schooling and the new technologies. The first incompatibility is based on uniform learning as compared to customization. Mass-production notion of uniform learning is the deeply ingrained notion of schooling. However, customization has been able to assist students who are able to access computers through responding to their interests and difficulties. The teacher as an expert is now being put on the edges, as students are now diversifying the knowledge sources (Collins et al. 2). The opening up of diverse knowledge sources is good, but students are left vulnerable to accessing sites and sources that are not authentic. In the process, they are able to have a wrong view of a phenomenon.

There is no doubt, based on the reflection by Collins et al (2) and supported by Hamidi and Chavoshi (1054) as to why technology should not be embraced in the education sector. There are several other fields that have adopted the use of technology in facilitating an easy way of conducting business. An example is the airline industry, and therefore, adopting it in education is an effective way of improving student learning, while at the same time enhancing the professional development of teachers. There are various forms of technology that can be adopted in education, ranging from computers, calculators, and other learning tools such as mobile learning. The use of these technological tools has been of great assistance in meeting diversity of learning preferences and needs. There are different needs by both the teacher and the students in the learning environment. For instance, it is the desire of every student to know how to learn. Technology, Brenner, and Brill (138) have played a vital role in meeting the needs of learners through the learn-learning concepts. On the other hand, Brenner and Brill (139) opine that teachers wish to have an environment where the community and parents are engaged in meeting the learning requirements of the student or pupil. This can be done through constant interaction through technology, as they seek to get input from parents about their child or children. 

The second concept in incorporating technology is to ensure that the users understand its objective, as well as feeling comfortable with the privacy issues. Privacy is a major concern in technology, as majority of children and students have fallen vulnerable to cyber bullies. The result has been devastating with students who are not adequately assisted committing suicide because of being shamed. It is therefore important to put in place security measures that will guide the use of technology in education (Brenner and Brill 138). Technological use in education is not the end, but management in schools and education stakeholders should have an effective way of gathering feedback in order to address challenges or drive interactive design of technology. It is through feedback that technology in education can address user needs by considering user feedback.

In conclusion, it is worth reiterating that technology in education continues to play a vital role in the transformation of education. The integration of various methods such as online learning and 3D printing are some of the ways that have assisted in the evolution of education through technology. The arguments presented in this paper supports the fact that advancements in technology despite eminent challenges, play a crucial role in the transforming nature of education, and its integration is a faster way of reaching and educating mass number of students. For instance, Hamidi and Chavoshi (1054) have summarized the classification of mobile learning in higher education in seven main categories. One of these categories and which has been supported by several other authors is the ease of use. Teachers can now offer lessons to any student at the comfort of their houses. The use of online presentations and video approach creates an opportunity for growth. An example of a teacher using power point presentation is through introducing a new concept in classroom. This provides an opportunity for engagement. In addition to power points presentations, there is the use of graphics as well as bulleted information. The slides are also characterized with videos that have been embedded that assists in explaining the concept. There are other applications of technology such as the use of Kahoot, which is an educational app. The app is effective for use after lessons to examine the information that has been provided in class. Students create anonymous user entries to engage in the game while teachers create and share information between them.

The other classifications involve trust, characters and personal qualities. On the other hand, there are those that argue that technology has also been disruptive in classrooms. This disruption is informed by the unequal disparity among states in embracing technology. For instance, the State of Arizona through University of Phoenix seems to be doing well in terms of technology adoption as compared to others states. This creates an unequal environment where others are making strides while others are not. It is also true that the adoption of technology in education requires training and management, as well as resources that may be hindrance among those who lack the same. While challenges abound, it is evident that progress is being made through technology adoption in schools with the online collaborative mentoring model that was developed in Hungary being a perfect example of its success.

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