Environmental Study论文模板 – Energy Auditing Exercise

Energy audit form

Site Data
1Building name:William Morris
2Address:Estates Department Priory Street, Coventry
3Age of building (approximate):109
4Date of last major renovation:2010
5Number of floors:4
6Approximate number of occupants:7500
7Floor area (m2) for space heating:5th 
4th1334.03m2
3rd  1350.79m2
2nd1434.72m2
1st1659.94m2
Ground floor1659.94m2
-11529.25m2
-2 
Total8968.67m2
Energy Data
8Annual gas consumption (kWh): 
 Comments on gas consumption (no more than 100 words):   As can be seen from the chart, varied harmoniously with the heating degree days. Gas consumption was highest when the heating degree days were at their highest value. Generally, gas consumption was high when a lot of heating was required in the building and low when minimal heating was required in the building. However, in the period between June and August when the heating degree days were at their lowest values, gas consumption increased in the building. Apparently, gas was unnecessarily used for heating during these months. As such, the efficiency of gas consumption during these months was poor.  
9Annual electricity consumption (kWh): 
 Comments on electricity consumption (no more than 100 words):   As can be seen from the chart, energy consumption is highest between the months of March and May as well as between October and December. During these months, the highest number of students are in school undertaking their studies and therefore energy use is expected to be at the highest. Due to the nature of the University calendar, some students are usually in study breaks in the other months, and hence the lower levels of energy use. Electricity is used for lighting, facilitating office work, facilitating learning activities such as lab experiments, charging computer gadgets as well as cooking.
10Total annual energy consumption (kWh):3,333,505kWh
11Space heating factor (%):74%
12Weather correction factor:2.921214998
13Weather corrected space heating (kWh): 7,190,668
14Exposure correction factor:1.1
15Space heating corrected for exposure (kWh): 7,909,735
16Correct total annual energy use: 8,781,707
17Daily operational hours:14 hours
18Days of use per week:6 days
19Weeks of use per year:51 weeks
20Total hours of use per year:4284 hours
21Expected hours of use per year:6000 hours
22Hours of use factor:1.40
23Normalised performance index:1,371.36 kWh/m2
24Comments (no more than 100 words): A typical university building (with fair performance range) has a normalized performance index in the range of 230-314kWh/m2 (Al-Shemmeri, 2011). However, the NPI value of 1,371.36kWh/m2 obtained from the William Morris building data calculations indicates that the energy consumption of William Morris building is much higher and the building has a poor performance in terms of energy efficiency. In fact, the energy use for William Morris building is more than 4 times the energy usage for a typical university building with fair performance. The high NPI value also indicates that energy efficiency is very low for the building. As such, energy efficiency strategies must be implemented to ensure that energy is used efficiently in the building.
How savings can be achieved
25  Comments (no more than 500 words): There are several ways in which energy savings can be achieved in the William Morris building at Coventry University. The easiest method is to replace or upgrade the energy consuming units of the building (Al-Shemmeri, 2011). First, all lighting should be changed to LEDs or CFLs. Currently, the building uses incandescent bulbs and standard fluorescent lights in most of its rooms. These lights are inefficient and use a lot of energy. Considering that lights run for most time of the day, they are one of the most significant energy consuming units in the building. Additionally, standard fluorescent lights generate a lot of heat and may add to cooling costs in the building (Wheeler, 2007). Therefore, replacing all the standard lights with the more energy efficient LEDs and CFLs will greatly save energy usage in the William Morris building. Second, the university must invest in energy-saving power strips. Computers in classrooms as well as other devices must be plugged into power strips to help in reducing the stand-by power usage of these devices. Third, all displays used in the building should be upgraded to flat and LCD screens. This will help reduce the amount of power that is currently used by the old television displays that are inefficient. LCD displays use less than a third of the energy used by CRT screens. Therefore, by upgrading to LCD screens, the energy consumption for displays will fall to 1/3 of its current value (Wheeler, 2007). Using sensors for turning lights and devices can also help in saving energy. Sensors help in saving energy by ensuring that devices that are not in use are turned off; this includes lights in classrooms, bathrooms and toilets. Sensors can turn on lights when a person enters a room and automatically turn off the lights when there is no one in the room. The other way for reducing energy is by instilling an energy saving culture among the users of the building (Wheeler, 2007). In many cases, students and university staff leave lights on in the building for longer hours while not in use. Instilling an energy saving culture will ensure that the users of the building take responsibility and turn off all the lights and devices once they are not in use. On the other hand, the university may opt to change the physical characteristics of the William Morris building in an attempt to reduce energy losses and increase energy savings (Al-Shemmeri, 2011). In particular, the Coventry university can rehabilitate the building or remodel it in such a way that it will include design features that will maximize the use of natural sunlight. Remodelling may include adding blinds or other window fixtures in the classrooms that will ensure sufficient natural lighting in the classrooms that can be used for learning in day time and save the power that is currently consumed by lights that run during the day. Since heating is largely required in the building, the university should install a combined heat and power plant to meet the electricity and space-heating requirements of the building (Al-Shemmeri, 2011).  

References

Al-Shemmeri, T., 2011. Energy audits: a workbook for energy management in buildings. John Wiley & Sons.

Wheeler, J. C. 2007. Everyday conservation. Edina, Minn, ABDO Pub.

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