Human Resource Management论文模板 – Boundaryless Career

1.1 Introduction

The advancement in innovation has brought opportunities and challenges in the world. The opportunities are spread both at the organizational level and individual level. The firms are always on the look out to get qualified men and women who are highly skilled to take up the available opportunities (Toric, 2008, p. 3). Career is an aspect of information and familiarity amassed and personified in skills, proficiency and the link network that has been attained through experience gained with time (Toric, 2008, p. 3). The concept of boundaryless career contrasts with the traditional view of how the job was considered. The idea surpasses the limitations of the institutions and professions which is sustained by social networks’ (Arnold, 2014). There exists two different types of mobility in career, the inter-organizational and intra-organizational mobility (Valcour & Tolbert, 2006). This study will illustrate the impact of boundary-less career to the employees, the organization and the society at large.

1.2 Effect of boundaryless career on individuals.

The career concept encompasses the situation where a single move across the boundaries. The boundaries can be job function relate, the hierarchal level or the geographies. This concept has a significant effect on the employees of the firm. The workers gain immensely for the concept when is adopted by any given organisation across the world. One of the most significant attributes that the company employees stand to gain is discussed comprehensively below.

  • The individual through this concept owns the career as personal property. The owning aspect comes from the circumstance that, the workers come up with their unique understanding of success and also, they use the knowledge to guide them while choosing profession choices. The guidance is achieved through selecting the projects that will give the opportunity to accumulate different skills, international professional linkages and help maintain an increased level of disability. With individuals gathering diverse knowledge and expertise, this increases their capability of changing from job to job in the same organisation of in a different one.
  • There exists a variation in the attitude maintenance among employees towards coming up and pursuing the job linked associations across many firms. The degree of boundarylessness differs among the employees in many companies. The employees who have a relatively high level of boundaryless attitude in an organisation is comfortable when it comes to creation and sustenance of links beyond the organisation. This aspect will increase the individual’s knowledge and skills.

1.3 Effects of boundarylessness to an organization

The relative standing theory gives a theoretical approach used to compare how the executives compare among themselves in different organizations (Cheramie, et al., 2007, p. 7). The aspects and status such as monthly payments can be used by the firm to retain the employees. The structure of the organisation can be viewed concerning compensations are given to the workers and also success, career measure (Cheramie, et al., 2007, p. 7). The reduced movement among the firms improves the operations of the business.

  • The factors of the organisation are the potential cause of movement in managerial career. These factors are downsizing and decline. Downsizing does not only create a loss of jobs in an organisation, but the actions serve as increase retention in the firm by transferring the workers and also giving them some temporary jobs (Gross, 2015, p. 24).
  • Given the fact that, downsizing reduces the cost of employment, many people believe that the practice helps the firm to compete in a more efficient manner and increase the profitability margin (Bullon & Bueno, 2008, p. 4). The concept of boundaryless career as opposed to the organizational bounded occupations (Musial, 2015).

1.4 Effect of boundarylessness career to the society

  • The United States of America workforce exemplify a culturally different labor force. There is a significant influx of people to the American workforce. The workers come from various cultures which motivate research work to be done to determine the relationship that exists between the socio-cultural background and the career development (Hong, 2006, p. 3).  The socialization level of the community and society as a whole would be improved. This has been achieved since the labor force is used to the element of crisscrossing different organizations and positions. The general knowledge and skills that come about with this kind of career is immense and can impact an employee in a positive way.

1.5 Critiques of boundary-less career

Systems need boundaries to define themselves. Therefore, (Inkson, et al., 2010, p. 3)Notices that the term boundaryless is a misleading term in nature. The systems and people need the boundaries to make themselves distinct from the environment. In the career perspective, the boundaries are not permanently removed or abolished, but the employees cross the boundaries forming a boundary crossing job (Inkson, et al., 2010, p. 3). The critiques clearly show that there are still barriers existing in the organisation, the employees across each boundary as they move from one hierarchical level to another and from one firm to the other.

1.6 Conclusion

Boundary-less career is a modern concept that is adopted in different parts of the world. The concept has both negative and positive impacts on both the firm, society and individual organizations.  The different people are affected by a great knowledge and skills in their day to day activities in the company. The diverse skills and knowledge possessed by the workers improve efficiency of the organizations. The cost of employment can be reduced if a firm adopts a boundary-less career system. Employees can be moved from one department to another internally.  The society can benefit from social employees and individuals with great attitudes. Different scholars have criticized the system by the existence of the boundaries in the organisation.

2.0 Workplace bullying

2.1 Introduction

The act of repeated and mistreatment that can lead to health-harming of people or individual by one or more perpetrators describes bullying. The conduct is abusive because, it humiliates, intimidates and threatens an individual. Also, it interferes with the work of the person being abused (WPBI, 2015). According to (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2014), the workplace bullying is characterised by sexual harassments, the deliberate interference of ones working schedule, hurtful remarks, intimidations, attacking or the act of threatening an individual among others. The act of spreading rumors that are intended to damage the reputation and dignity of the individual is also considered to be an act of harassment and bullying at work. According to (GOV.UK, 2016), the bullying act is not against the law, but harassment is illegal. The study will examine the emotional and physical impact of bullying of employees and also, a general organizational impact of bullying on the firm.

2.2 Impact of bullying to the employees

The act of workplace bullying has negative effects on the workers in general. The victims report deteriorated health conditions. The emotional and physical impacts of bullying are:  

  • Increased level of anxiety and depression. The negative emotions followed by anger and emotional exhaustion (Hershcovis, et al., 2015, p. 9). This mental effect can be very detrimental to the well being of the workers. Poor concentration and panic attacks would the immediate impact of work bullying.  Trauma is also a side effect of bullying. The symptoms include having fearful thoughts which are negative in nature and flashbacks at night and day time where individuals reply serious thoughts over and over again interfering with their normal operations.
  • The physical impact of bullying includes muscle pains, digestive upsets, change of weight and a possible link with heart disease. Bullying leaves an individual in a tensed mood all day. The tension can affect the body muscles both in the head and whole body (KwikMed, 2014). Psychological stress will lead to muscle contraction in both active and rest mode of an individual (KwikMed, 2014).  Digestive upsets include bowel syndrome, bloating and the bowel habit alteration. The close link between the human brain and the digestive system increases the symptoms experienced.

According to statistics available, many adults are experiencing workplace bullying. This practice has resulted in a low mood among the employees, reduced confidence in the place of work and affects self-esteem (KwikMed, 2014). The bullying witnesses also experience an adverse impact to workplace bullying. This shows that the effect is not only felt by the victim, but also those in the surrounding environment and the firm. 

2.3 Impact of bullying to the organization

  • The bullying cost can be categorized into three groups. Firstly, the cost of staff replacement that leaves due to bullying effectively. The cost related to the investigation of mistreatment and finally the amount of work effort that will be displaced as the employee adapts to bullying incidences in the organization. The effect of the actions of the firm is not pleasant. Due to increased physical impact, the sick leave will increase (University of Louisville, 2010, p. 4). With the increased in the number of employees applying for sick leave, the production level will decrease. The low level of self-esteem affects the employees’ level of creativity which is essential to firm’s profitability.

2.4 Effect of workplace bullying in society

  • Adverse impacts that the act of bullying subjects in the community should never be underestimated. The result may include: resignation of the active labor force, voluntary redundancy or early retirement (Oladapo & Banks, 2013, p. 111).  The cost of the medical intervention to the victims is also an essential element that must be factored. Strategies must be genuinely brought up to ensure the menace is defeated.

2.5 Workplace bullying control measures

The organizations have to devise ways of ensuring that bullying practices are reduced to minimal. Different methods can be implemented. Some of the methods include

  • Devising and enforcing a policy that deals with bullying and harassment. This can be achieved by clearly defining what constitutes the crime. The firm can also avail information related to psychological support for the victims. The procedure of raising concern about bullying should be clear and accessible to all employees. The penalties that accrue the perpetrators should be outlined clearly to reduce the chances of such unwanted acts taking place.
  • The business can also promote the anti-bullying culture in the organisation. This step can be achieved by implementing the policies formulated adequately without bias. The penalties have to be harsh to ensure no such attempts are reported.
  • The fact that corporations have allowed bullying to take place in their workstation can damage the firm’s reputation. In the United States of America, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has in many instances reported numerous cases of workplace bullying. The companies have had to pay penalties regarding finance for not arresting bullying situations in their respective workstations (Atkins, 2013, p. 2). 

2.6 Conclusion.

The workplace bullying has been experienced globally. Many firms are coming up with policies that will ensure a stop to the practice. The practice poses a serious challenge to the existing businesses. Affecting the level of revenues accumulated and the general profits. Almost, a third of employees in the firm experience sequences of bullying either by the coworkers or the management team. The workplace bullying is going through an increment in nature because people are not ready to report the cases. (Milligan, 2015) Reports that, the victims contemplates committing suicide. The firm can initiate policies that ensure that bullying is kept at a minimum and all the cases reported are dealt with. Norway did the anti-bullying research in the 1980s which has been adopted by European countries to fight the menace. Dr Olweus views human safety as a fundamental human right. He is considered as a pioneer in the bullying research topic (Violence Prevention Works, 2012).

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