Human Resource Management论文模板 – Human Resource Management Approach

 Human resource management is key to the performance of an organization. Human professional practices entail hard and soft approaches. In this regard, there are four key policies and practices which focus on improving organizational labor force including; human resource flow. Reward systems, the influence of employees and reward systems. Labor force programs are critical to the performance of employees in some ways including; enhancement of employee effectiveness, knowhow as well as motivation. Two major models exist about human resource management approaches; that is; hard and soft approaches. What mainly distinguishes the two approaches primarily encompasses whether an organization is focused on resources or human.

    According to Tichy (1982), hard approaches considers human resource as a major aspect of organizational production. It is also a major variable cost through which most organizations can undertake business operations at ease and whose supply needs to reflect demand within the product market. This implies that organizations should first consider the market demand for their products before embarking on the production process. Human resource should be proportional to the demand, and therefore the size of human resource within an organization should be determined based on the market demands (El Mansour and Dean 2016). In this regard, organizations should aim at increasing their short-term returns either by hiring or by reducing the number of the task force. This will play a key role in maintaining a balance between its supply as well as demand in the market which is largely determined by changes in market consumption of its commodities.

    The soft approach in an organization primarily seeks to enhance competitive advantages in organizations and recognizes that competitive advantage is acquired by promoting high quality which is reflected regarding employee skills and execution, flexibility as well as a devoted employee.  Soft approach is grounded on an identification of task force as a major contributing factor to high-quality production, therefore, calling human labor management which is different from the manner in which other resources are controlled by an organization.

    Employee training, learning, and development are vital aspects of human resource management. Human resource managers are obliged to ensure high-quality training and talent development among employees. Most importantly, the focus should be enhanced from employee training to learning. Employee development needs to be an ongoing process in an organization. Effective training and development of subordinate aids in maintaining competitive employees and increasing returns (Bawuro 2016). With the rising need for top talents and innovativeness among employees, training and development of employee are increasingly turning to be essential precepts. The hiring of well-talented employee costs time as well as money to the organizations. However, the manner in which human resource managers involves and promote a development of their subordinate affect retention and expansion of operations in an organization. 

    To ensure employee training results in significant impacts, human resource managers are needed to plan and align development programs with care. It is critical to recognize business effects whereby, all employee development programs should be formulated in aligning with fundamental organizational objectives. It is equally important for human resource managers to first identify skill gaps by making a comprehensive analysis of the impact of human behavior on a realization of organizational goals(Storey 2015). Analysis of current skills, as well as ideals among employees, is critical in determining what organizational human development objectives are. All subordinate training and development programs should aim at enforcing motivation, mastery of skills as well as critical thinking. Examination of efficiency and sustain gains, as well as the appropriateness of training and development programs, is crucial in promoting a positive impact.

    So as to embark on the smooth learning process, human resource managers should embark on technology improvement to enable the scientist to identify any changes during the learning process. Physical activities are critical to learning and therefore a need for organizations to ensure employees have ample time for recreation (Amara and Atia 2016). Learning and talent development is crucial to an organization in some ways that include; reinforcement of employee performance, management as well as retaining of talent among employees, enhancement of motivation to employee and reinforcement of their commitment and attraction of potential work force in an organization.

    Creation of a learning culture in an organization necessitate the involvement of different stakeholders. To start with, there should be involvement of line managers responsible for human resource in specific departments. Secondly, human resource and L&TD professionals should take part in the learning process. Furthermore, they should have a comprehensive understanding of learning a process to determine their effectiveness and identify any improvements needed to enhance the efficiency of a learning process.  Government initiatives are vital components to be integrated into lea ring process (Knowles et al. 2014).  This is to aid the development of employee learning structure as well as flexibilities to create government-wide charters to uphold the development programs. This will also enable promulgation of appropriate policies and approaches which will guide implementation structures to uphold subordinate learning as well as development. It will further enhance leadership employment as well as involvement approaches.

    Employee learning cycle should encompass the assessment of training requirements planning the training, conducting training exercise and evaluation of training programs. Assessment of L&TD requirements is an essential aspect which should engage some critical steps. First, there should be the evaluation of know-how, skills as well as competencies that an organization requires from the employee, Secondly, assessment of requirements for the entire organization, team, department and individuals. Thirdly, there should be involvement of job analyses, fault analyses as well as questionnaires to evaluate basic information required from the employee. To appropriately select a suitable employee training program, human resource managers are needed to embrace some methods including; cluster discussion, video, lectures, electronic learning as well as trainer-centered approaches among other techniques (Ford 2014).

    It is important for human resource managers to evaluate learning and talent development by use of various techniques which include; administration of end-of-course questionnaire, undertaking of interview  to gunner opinions from learners, calculation of investment profit, testing what have been learnt, self-interview by participants as well as cost analysis of the whole learning and development process (Storey 2015).

    Learning and talent development examination is the formal as well as the informal assessment of efficiency and quality of employee training programs. It is often determined by assessing the merits of a learning process and monitoring the effects of the process that is, learning results. Employee development should signify some traits including; reliability on responses, self-generated, individualistic and reliable on the pre-existing knowledge (Latham 1988). It is critical for an organization to establish the type of training which best suits its needs and employee situation, for instance, specific, measurable, skills, practical, texts and exams and focused on organization activities. 

    Reinforcement has also been perceived as a crucial undertaking by human resource managers in their administrative role over a human resource. Human resource managers should center their attention on employee performance. Attainment of high-performance levels can be fostered by altering job behaviors. It is also vital for human resource managers to disseminate knowledge related to the task. This is done though initiation of programs such as; coaching, buddy, refreshers, mentoring, acting up, task distribution, secondment and undertaking a comprehensive job design.  Line managers lay a critical role in human resource departments (Berman 2015). They are responsible for planning, acting, monitoring as well as reviewing employee training and achievements. There is some employee development evaluation which includes; organizational level. Individual level, team level, and Job level (Findlay 2004). Therefore, human resource managers should select the most appropriate development type to appropriately suit the organizational needs (Dias 2016).

    Psychological contract has been a key precept to a human resource across organizations.  This entails the unspoken expectations that a team and employees have over each other for instance, loyalty among employee in exchange for employment security. However, there might be written expectations which entail some issues including; organizational discipline regulations, pay and working hours and the beginning date of continuous employment (Coffield 2008). Psychological contract poses some significant impacts to employees such as changing employee morale, differing perceptions on treatment among employees, intrinsic as well as extrinsic employment satisfaction and reciprocal loyalty organization.

    There are numerous issues about the psychological contract which include; the manner and level to which employees adopt management practices exhibited by other people. The basis of many psychological contracts is employee sense of fairness, trusts as well as their belief that an organization honors their deal (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development2010). Commitment and satisfaction of employees are enhanced when a positive psychological contract is fostered. As a result, there will be a positive effect on the performance of the organization.  There are three types of psychological contracts that include; transactional contracts, relational contracts, and balanced contracts.

    Employees offer to the employees include; performance driven reward, individual development support, constant changes in business and enhancement of frequent role transition. Major employee feedback includes; flexibility, self-accountability, and high-performance level. There are some strategic effects associated with the psychological contract including; process fairness which ensures that all employee interests are accounted for, and they are treated respected (Harrison 2009). There should be proper communication with well-established two-way dialogue; bottom-up management style should be used, and expectations of employees should be well managed. Also, there should be the constant measurement of employee attitudes as a way of identifying any improvements in performance (Sachau 1993).

    During communication between human resource managers and employees, there are three key considerations to be made. First is the value as worth which considers how all sides establishes inclusion value for one another. Second is the value as respect which established the manner in which staff feels about an organization and how the organization feels about its workers. Lastly is the value as beliefs. This outlines the level of alignment linking divergent values held by organizational employees (Pavlov 1927). Such values include honesty, social responsibility, and treatment. Improvement of employee performance necessitates them to work harder, smarter, be cost-aware and increase their initiative level. Organizations on their part should provide competitive payment to employees and offer lifetime employment for an employee to feel job secure.

List of References

Amara, N.B. and Atia, L., 2016. E-TRAINING AND ITS ROLE IN HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT. Global Journal of Human Resource Management4(1), pp.1-12.

Bawuro, F.A., Danjuma, I. and Ibrahim, A.K., 2016. Value of Training and Development during Recession to Employees: Evidence from Nigeria. The International Journal of Business & Management4(4), p.204.

Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, J.P. and Van Wart, M.R., 2015. Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Sage Publications.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2010) Pushing the Boundaries of Learning and Development: Podcast 42, CIPD (; accessed 19.6.2014).

Coffield, F. (2008) Next time you see a learning style questionnaire, burn it, Education Guardian, 25 July.

Dias, L., 2016. Human resource management. Human Resource Management.

El Mansour, B. and Dean, J.C., 2016. Employability Skills as Perceived by Employers and University Faculty in the Fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) for Entry Level Graduate Jobs. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies4(01), p.39.

Findlay, J. (2004) Evaluation is no white elephant, People Management, Vol. 10, No. 6, 50.

Ford, J.K., 2014. Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Psychology Press.

Harrison, R. (2009) Learning and Development, 5th edition, CIPD, London.

Knowles, M.S., Holton III, E.F. and Swanson, R.A., 2014. The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Routledge.

Latham, G.P., 1988. Human resource training and development. Annual review of psychology39(1), pp.545-582.

Pavlov, I. (1927) Conditioned Reflexes, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sachau, D., 1993. Human Resource Training and Development.

Storey, J., 2014. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

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