Human Resource Management论文模板 – Individual Research Review


       The paper seeks to critically evaluate the meaning of identity in various aspects and its relation to work.  That is a clear concept of identity as well as, a complicated concept of identity. However, describing the word identity debates as still ongoing. That is the identity that has the basis of ethnicity, gender, national and state based identities. Erikson, the psychologist, is the greatest pioneer of identity. It was during the nineteen-fifties; in that time the meaning of it; as the dictionary describes had not satisfied Erikson. Identity can take the significance of social characteristics that an individual prides itself in. It may also consist of personal views of a person. Identity may also be the behaviours of a person on the basis of the organisation in the society; that he comes from.

Key words; identity, occupation, career


What is identity?

       In the recent years; scholars of various subjects of life; psychology, sociology, and political science; have been venturing, into the study of this vast topic. The students of America are devoting themselves so much; into the study of this disciple on the basis of gender, race, and sexuality. However, as much as individuals are taking into consideration what; the discipline stands for; there is a danger in it. In national politics; identity plays a significant role into separation on the basis of it (Jenkins 2014, p.12).

 Character belongs to a person. It is a single individual. Two people might have the same name; identical features, but their identities are different. We can never conclude that another person’s identity is another person. The reason a person is entirely distinct from another. In the recent past, scientists have been discovering the distinguishing factor for even from twins. Finger prints of every individual are different that giving someone his separate distinction (Kraus and Arenhart 2015, p.12).

      Identity describes how we do things and why we do them. Traditions usually take the forms of a particular group of people. Identity defines a person’s personality completely. Identity in all other aspects may not really matter, but an individual one matters a lot. It is what will define whether a person has low or high self esteem. Identity will show how the person will dress or even how a person will communicate (Lynd 2013, p.14).

       Sometimes it associates itself with how people address us. The formation of identity is on how individuals interact with one another. The interaction begins from a low level. According to the theorists of psychology; communication starts from a tender age; that of an infant. The environment that it grows will significantly define its identity. It is hear that we are able to explain whether; it lies on the positive or on the negative aspect (Stets and Serpe 2013, p, 33).

       According to the post modernists; identity is not from within a person. Instead, it originates from those that surround him. The people that a children’s’ parents expose them to; will greatly determine who they eventually become. Constant exposure to negatively; will bring up a negative identity. It is a common to find; a drug dealers’ child will follow the same path. Rarely, do they make different decisions? The same case applies to most circumstances of the positive surrounding. It is, however, not in the part of parent indoctrination (Stets and Serpe 2013, p, 33).

        According to the previous studies of identity, for example, that of the early twentieth century; illustrates that individual and society are in inseparable. Their relationships are interdependent. One cannot exist without another. Social relations are greatly dependant on identity. The vice versa applies. In order to understand an individual behaviour, it is paramount to look into the cultural organisation that they come from (Stets and Serpe 2013, p, 33).

 Identity in the former years was having a full link to the social environment. However, recently researches are finding out different links other that. Their intention is to disapprove that identity indeed originates from sociology. However, no matter how many links that form psychology, it has been impossible to prove no relation with sociology (Stets and Serpe 2013, p, 36).

 It is the symbol of interaction amongst individuals. Ongoing researches are showing how much of a complication identity can be. The intensity surrounding the discipline may cause one to ask; why so much interest? Many people that venture into teaching do not find it important to explain to a learner the meaning of it. There are many strings that attach themselves to it. One is the explanations are so broad. Secondly, a teacher may see that the student understands what it is. Why is it so? It is because there is a general acceptance; that a person should know more than one explanations of identity (Lynd 2013, p.22).

       There are more than ten definitions of identity. Post modernisation, sociological and Erickson theory have been evolving as time carries on. It is interesting to discover that all definitions; may appear different, but their relation is so similar. There is no much difference. They all revolve around what defines a person. It is a formation of factors that define an individual (Stets and Serpe 2013, p, 40).

Literature Review

Previously, the paper was analysing what identity is and what creates it. It is an important step to know that; identity affects all aspects of life. However, this paper seeks to show how identity and work relate; and affect each other. It will aim to critically evaluate why identity affects an individual in their workplace

What creates an identity?

       What people expect from another; plays a role in forming an identity. In relation to work the tension that surrounds individuals will create it. The role that a person plays in their surroundings defines them a lot. For instance when a person in their place of work is a superior person; it will affect how they act. His subordinates expect him to act in a manner that shows leadership qualities (Wrzesniewski, LoBuglio, Dutton and Berg 2013, p. 282).

 When people come together and form their own social group within a working environment; individuals within the social groups are said to have certain characteristics. It is that, which makes them identifiable. Also, does a habit in a working environment. When a person has a habit of doing things in a certain way; it is common that his colleges will refer to him in that manner. It might not be necessarily a positive aspect. His or her identity from others; he or she may or may not know (Gangwisch 2014, p. 1159).

Masculinity and working environment

It is imperative to note that masculinity does affect both genders. However, it is not in equal measures. At first, there is this traditional notching; whereby men are superior. Thus the male sex works so hard to make it possible and an actual factor. On the other hand the female gender; tries so hard to disapprove that; and having the desire to show that; they can do better. Thus conflict arises between the two making it impossible to work in the union (Gibbs, Sikweyiya and Jewkes 2014, p 72).

 Generally, the society has been having this view that; men deserve particular big positions. However, it changing as the same society seeks to empower women. However, when empowering women, the community should play close attention to creating a certain form of respect among the two genders. For a long time, there have been jobs; whereby a particular gender dominates. A good example is a fire fighting jobs and the army. The females were not being participating in them (Foxhall and Salmon 2013 p. 12)

In areas such as tailoring and hairdressing; the two genders have been working together. It is contrary to the recent years; where the occupation was female in domination. Such kind of professions, the society recognises as to be particularly for one gender. It, therefore, becomes difficult for the opposite sex to participate in it. It also appears a threat to jobs previously in domination by either gender (Vandello, Hettinger, Bosson and Siddiqi 2013, p. 307).

Culture and ideology

 Each occupation has its own culture. Indeed culture and ideology may seem similar. However, there is a distinction. That is ideology, is what the people of that occupation believe in. On the other hand, culture involves; how people do their things. Ideology is what defines culture. To explain this; when people have strong beliefs about certain aspects; it informs how they do their stuff (Alcoff, Hames-García, Mohanty, Hames-García and Moya 2016, p.34).

       What develops occupation ideology is very different from that that of occupation culture. Occupation culture is from the identity of that particular profession such as teaching. It is more about the values, the norms and the procedures that constitute. Occupation culture informs occupation identity. It shapes them into fitting into it. While ideologies are the interests of the whole group at large. The spokesperson is the one that addresses issues on ideology (CHENG, Paddock and Kossek 2013, p.33).

       Fire fighters too have occupation identity, ideology and culture. Their identity entails working for the security of the state on matters resulting to fire. While their culture was built on, the active men and women. They are also among the bravest in the country. Their ideology involves carrying water in huge tankers and any other methods; that are crucial for putting out the fire (Srinivas 2014, p. 56).

Occupational identity

Occupation identity; is an aspect relating to work. Generally, there are occupations that are known to a particular gender. The building of houses; is in relation to men. As much as there is female empowerment, it is very hard to find ladies doing that. When I mention building; it is imperative to note that; it is the actual act of it. Children nannies are in most cases ladies. Indeed there is the diversity of jobs. Particular occupations still remain dominant to a specific gender (Ryan 2014, p. 101).

The structure of organisations is within various occupations. Such as law firms, information technology, and construction. When looking for jobs, the search is usually from the same line. It is through that different cultures develop; concerning all fields. The cultures within an occupation tend to be serious that the cultures around the social surrounding (Ryan 2014, p. 105).

It derives identity from working experience; whereby it was difficult to the learn ability, skills and knowledge are. As time carries on an only influences the work process and structures. Work also tends to shape the methods of which an individual does his things. The identity lasts for a longer period of time just like professional identity. Amongst the young, there is a difference in views over this identity. The basis of the views is of gender. Females are likely to belong to the status of achievement. The males, on the other hand, are more liable to belong to the state of diffusion (Ryan 2014, p. 101).

When an individual losses his or her occupational identity. It may result in depression and stress. The results are usually devastating. Therefore most people struggle to keep the form of identity. Most of us will do whatever it takes safeguard it (Ryan 2014, p. 101).

Career identity

       It involves how careers of particular individuals play a role in creating an identity for themselves. Careers assist an individual in realising and opportunities and using them for their benefits. It revolves around an individual (Dent and Whitehead 2013). It helps an individual learn from present and past circumstances; and use for the better in the future. Vocational identity is another word that may take the place of career identity (Bingle, Howard, Robinson and Kington 2015, p. 23).

 It may bring into focus into employability. Vocational identity refers to a person’s view in the career. The steps they ought to take improve their careers. It involves focusing on one’s goals. It includes taking time, to look for methods that may build up the career. It also means putting your experiences and those of other people into useful structures (Mack, Rankins and Woodson 2013, p.28).

Professional Identity

       It is one of the many identities of a population in a social way. However, it relies a lot on the work aspect. It is a mixture of a person’s own identity, and that is in a professional manner. It also entails the role that a person’s role plays in their identity. It involves acquiring skills that are of benefit (Cruess, R.L., Cruess, S.R., Boudreau, J.D., Snell, L. and Steinert, Y., 2014, p. 1448). The informal and formal learning aspects are in it. Profession involves what a person will do over an extended period of time. Thus it will be stable. Therefore the form of identity; will cause a person to seek knowledge. Then perhaps venture into another field of professionalism (Louw, Austin, Rak and Barnes 2013, p. 44).

Managing identity

 Managers of various places of work are seeking to keep the proper identity; and doing away with the non-pleasant ones. Through various meetings in the organisations; they all try to identify what behaviour to emulate. When people are not fit to be working; they are usually removed from office. It is a method of taking off the wrong identity and keeping the real ones (Kwan, Kannan, Ho, and Parkinson, Red Hat 2014, p. 37).

       There are also a number of things a management may do to encourage proper identity. A good example; is rewarding those with good ones (Steeman, Tournoy, Grypdonck, Godderis and DE CASTERLÉ 2013, p. 220). Rewarding can come in different ways. It may include; a promotion, increasing an employee’s salary. It may also be publicly declaring how their proper identity affects their input in the work (Ting-Toomey 2014, 490). The opposite may occur for those with identities yielding negativity. Instead of sacking them; it is possible to demote them, or have a salary reduction (Harvey, and Allard 2015, p. 39). 

 Identity affects an employee input in work. It will determine how they work; how they relate to others. It may include how they take correction from superiors. It is also seen from how individuals handle company property. However before taking steps; either to punish negative identity; is imperative to understand the specific people. It would be better even after punishing them; remarkably taking action to help them to deal with negativity. The purpose is to avoid repetition of such instances (Marsick and Watkins 2015, p. 23). 

Failures of discovering identity

It is through identity, which some individuals may begin to view themselves as superior. With the feeling of superiority; they start to undermine certain ethnic groups. It brings about division; the famous; at the top wanting to prove them right. A conflict arises bringing a country into war. Some identity factors, people should not consider. The reason is; putting so much attention into them results in other people feeling inferior. The difference in identity should not tear us apart. The difference is what will make people equal (Cotnoir and Baxter, 2014, p.22).

      Identity brings about marginalisation. Since others may feel superior, it will result in separation. Mostly, it is usually on the basis of gender, race, and nationality. People are improving into seeing all are equal. However, segregation is still there. In places of work, to be specific; when one makes an application of job; they do not have a consideration on a minute basis. Disability may result in such an instance. Such factors are not what people can do about. A person’s brain ability; does not arise from whether they got limbs or not (Darling 2013, p.189)

 Culture plays a significant role in the failures of identity. It is because some cultural beliefs tend to exclude people from certain jobs. It is an old culture that people living with disability should not live healthy lives. It is through this that such individuals get no equal opportunity jobs. The same applies to women not having equal competition with men for certain positions (Riddell, S., and Watson, N., 2014, p. 123).

Work-based identity

       It is set to explain the identities with relation to work. Therefore it is important to discuss the various identities definitions in relation to work (Leidner 2016, p. 24) It is an original construction and representation; in the social aspect of work. It is how persons interact in the environment of work. Another definition is; it is the association and being part of a particular working group. It is when an employee derives his identity from the workplace he comes from (Koveshnikov, Vaara and Ehrnrooth 2016, p.28).

       It is also a set of beliefs that people have for themselves. It is with association with the place of work. It is also how positively they impact the work they. The effects the work has on themselves. It could be good or bad results (Hames-García 2016, p.78). 

Research Methods

      For such a case the method of research involves qualitative analysis. The reason is it’s hard to use quantitative analysis for such a research. The reason is it is quite difficult to set aside a particular sample for the purpose of investigation. It is because it is expensive. In such a case while using qualitative analysis; the methods for collecting data will be documentary analysis Hayes 2013, p.77). It includes using previously research and that was in document form. It is when a person does research; which he gives permission for it to be used as a research method Hayes 2013, p.99)


Most of the identity aspects come from the theory of Erikson; in mid nineteen-fifties. It was not until in the seventies that other explanations to identity; were popping up. Many scholars such the historians and sociologists were relying so much on identity. Being a full field; each of them; was seeking an explanation; that will be worldly recognizable. They were discovering various aspects. Identity explains class, race, ethnicity, political ideologies (Ryan 2014, p. 101).


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