Human Resource Management论文模板 – Managing Performance in a Work Environment

Overview of the Study

The study is in the major of human resource under the concept of performance management is a work environment. The study will evaluate a number of issues under this concept with the aim to create an understanding of the way they interlink to facilitate performance management in an organisation. Relevant examples will be used to enhance the evaluation of the various issues.

Operational Nature of Performance Management

The concept of managing performance in an organisation aims at ensuring that there is continues growth in good performance as per the expectations of the organisation and there is room to improve where performance is compromised. Employee’s performance is measured in terms of the outputs in an organisation against the investment that the organisations has made on its employees (Bruce, 2011). The factors that determine the performance are therefore the equipment and the human capital.

The solution to performance compromised by machines and equipment is easily handled by embracing more modern equipment and technology that re-boosts performance. For example, through use of new equipment that use new technology, Coca Cola Company has been able to boost its water efficiency thus improving its performance (THE COCA-COLA COMPANY, 2017).  On the other hand, the human capital are the greatest contributors to good organisational performance. This performance is dependent on various factors such as their level of motivation, the leadership directing them, their skills, knowledge and level of experience.  

The actual performance management is a systematic process that involves planning, monitoring, developing, rating, recognising, rewarding and finally enhancing good performance while addressing those factors that contribute to the low performance (Mpabanga, 2016). Various parties play different roles in the organisation that aid this performance management process.

Line Managers and the Human Resource Roles in Performance Management

The human resource plays the most vital role in linking the human workforce in all the divisions of the organisation in order to facilitate the achievement of strategic goals. The human resource is responsible for recruiting, training, monitoring human workforce performance and initiating other process that help to improve the abilities of the personnel (Liu, et al., 2015).

According to Gooderham, et al.(2015), the line managers are very important especially in organisations that have devolved their human resource operations. The line managers are in charge of operations in the various line of operations in an organisations and also the monitoring, development and wellbeing of the personnel in their line of operations (Trullen, et al., 2016). The line managers therefore contribute greatly to the performance management as they are in direct link with the personnel (Armstrong, 2009). They are engaged in employee performance evaluation and other operations that help to enhance performance in the organisation.  

A good example is at the multinational company called Topshop Fashions from UK. The firm has hundreds of  stores in the UK and in other countries all over the world. The firm has very many employees and it therefore uses line managers to lead other employees and also be the link between them and the higher ranks. They major in creating a motivated rot of employees and they help the management to establish strategies to facilitate performance management at the Topshop organisation (Topshop, 2017).

More to this, the human resource closely monitors the performance of the personnel. This is a continuous process that is guided by pre-determined levels of outputs. This way, the human resource is able to establish employees who are performing well and enhance their performance through rewards and other aspects of job such as promotions (Walker & Greenhall, 2011). On the other hand, the employees who perform poorly are assisted to improve their performance through various ways such as retaining or even being assigned a good performer to guide them on day to day operations to enhance their performance improvement.

Motivation and Personality’s Relationship in the line of Performance Management

Motivations refers to the ways that the management seeks to positively influence the behaviours of their employees with the aim of promoting their productivity (Bruce, 2011). It focus on making the employees of a particular organisation to act in a particular way that enhance the overall productivity of the organisation. Motivation of employees is the role of the human resource and the entire management and it can be initiated from different ways including personalised relationships amongst other ways of involving the employees.

It is important to note that the factors that motivate one group of employees may be different from the factors that motivate another group of employees. It is therefore important for the management to identify the particular factors that will motivate the particular individual or team of employees (Enos, 2007, p. 204). The management must understand needs of its employees first. This way, the management is able to create very specific strategies that enhances its success in the initiatives to motivate its employees.  

Employee’s needs might here be divided into tangible and non-tangible needs. For the tangible needs, these are working environment that is physically visible such as offices, working equipment amongst others. Good physical working environment motivates the employees and makes them feel appreciate thus boosting their morale. On the other hand, non-physical environments such a friendly working atmosphere that gives the employees an opportunity to express themselves and contribute in decision making boosts the employees morale. A good example is at the Google Inc. Company where they offer their employee great deal of a conducive working atmosphere where employees associate in horizontal and vertical relations thus creating a great working environment (Great Place to Work® Institute, 2017).   

Measures in Performance Management

The performance is measured against pre-determined outputs. This is therefore a process that involves the management pre-setting the particular individual and team expectations in line with their responsibilities (Robinson & Sensoy, 2016). These pre-established outputs are therefore used to measure the performance of the employees.

A company must seek to use a performance tool. One of the best tools that has been very successful is the balances scorecard. The balanced scorecard has four measures of performance that are based on the organisation’s strategy and vision. It has the financial front, the customers, the internal process and the learning and growth front (Hoque, 2014).This can be illustrated as below; The Balanced Scorecard

In the use of the tool above, the firm evaluates the performance of its employees in teams or at individual level basing on financial productivity, the customer satisfaction level, the rate of learning and growth and the efficiency in the internal processes (Tjader, et al., 2014). This ensure that the measure of performance is fair and it creates an opportunity for improvement.

An example of a Company that has used the balanced scorecard successfully is the Phillips Electronics Company. The firm has set up very effective indicators of each of the above four measures of performance. In the case of customers, it evaluate the customers satisfaction. On financial front, it evaluates value, growth and productivity while internal processes it evaluates the excellence of processes (Wahyuningsih, 2016). In terms of growth and learning, the firm evaluates its employees ability to gain skills, education and adopt new technology. This way, the firm is able to establish the performance of its employee fully creating a good potential for the future (Wahyuningsih, 2016). 

Development in Performance Management

The performance of employees that matches or goes beyond the expected performance is regarded to as a good performance (Dey, et al., 2015). The continuous success of a firm depends on its ability to enhance this good performance. Good performance is enhanced through being nurtured and such employees being retained in the organisation (Alice H. I, et al., 2014). It can be enhanced through recognising, rewarding and even promoting such employees.

Measures enable the organisations to identify employees who need help to improve hence creates an opportunity for the organisation to help such employees to enhance productivity. A good example is the Microsoft Company strategy where the firm gives the best employees an opportunity to lead others (Microsoft, 2015). This gives these employees the opportunity to share their knowledge, skills and experience hence enhancing the good performance beyond themselves.

The Use of Rewards in Performance Management

Rewards refer to tangible and non-tangible gifts that are given to employees in terms of monetary or non-monetary terms as a way of appreciating their good work. Depending on the organisations policy, ability and culture, appreciation through rewards can be a regular or non-regular affair in the organisation. Regular rewarding refers to a situation where the organisation has a particular time of the year when it rewards employees while non-regular refers to when employees are rewards ones there achieve without having to wait for a particular rewarding season in the organisation. A good example is at GlaxoSmithKline Plc where they reward their employee every time they contribute to a SIP by buying the employees shares in their own company (Paterson, 2013).

Today, the concept of monetary and non-monetary rewarding has become very crucial in organisations. The effectiveness of either is dependent on the needs of the employees of the particular organisations. This therefore means that the particular organisations must seeks to establish the needs of its employees in order to take the right measures to enable it to gain positively from either monetary or non-monetary rewards (Dinsmore, et al., 2014).

The designing of rewards should focus on either the individual employees or the various groups of employees in the organisation. In such cases, offering monetary rewards to the employees as a way of sharing the profits and appreciating their efforts in achievement of a particular single operation in the organisations is very effective.

On the other hand, various rewarding strategies help to make the rewards more meaningful and they help the organisations to motivate their employees. According to Beardwell and Claydon, 2010, there are two main rewarding strategies. These are the individual performance related pay and the team based pay. The individual based rewarding strategy is easy as it has no issues with sharing the success amongst a team. On the other hand, the team rewarding strategy might bring issues when sharing the success amongst the team members.

The non-monetary rewards on the other hand are very effective especially where the monetary rewards have been over used. Offering the employees job security, promotions, the opportunity to participate in organisational decision making and other non-monetary rewards such as paid-for trips and insurance covers including their family members is very effective in motivating the employees. For example, at the Microsoft Company, the firm has greatly invested in rewarding its employees through non-financial rewards where the firm gives its employees and their family free access to family counselling, healthy screening, free gym services and onsite health clinic care to enhance workforce wellness (Microsoft, 2017).  This is guided by their acknowledgement that the value of these rewards goes beyond what monetary rewards can achieve as argued by Hammermann & Mohnen, (2014).

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