Philosophy论文模板 – Navigating the Trolley Problem: A Critical Examination of Ethical Action in Life-and-Death Dilemmas


This essay provides a critical analysis of the Trolley Problem, a philosophical thought experiment that has been pivotal in discussions of ethical action under life-and-death dilemmas. By examining the perspectives of utilitarianism, deontological ethics, and virtue ethics, this paper aims to explore the complexities and competing moral intuitions that the Trolley Problem invokes. The objective is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each ethical framework in addressing the moral permissibility of action versus inaction in crises.


The Trolley Problem, first introduced by Philippa Foot in 1967, challenges our moral intuitions and ethical principles by posing a scenario where a decision must be made that will inevitably lead to the death of individuals. This thought experiment has generated extensive debate and discussion in moral philosophy. This essay will dissect the problem through various ethical lenses to understand how different moral theories guide decisions in such life-and-death situations.

Literature Review

The Trolley Problem and Its Variations

Discussing the original Trolley Problem and its subsequent variations, which have been designed to test the limits of our moral intuitions (Foot, 1967; Thomson, 1985).

Utilitarian Responses to the Trolley Problem

Reviewing the utilitarian approach to the problem, which emphasizes the maximization of overall well-being (Mill, 1863; Singer, 1972).

Deontological Perspectives on Moral Dilemmas

Analyzing Kantian deontology and other rule-based approaches that focus on moral duties and rights (Kant, 1785; O’Neill, 1996).

Virtue Ethics and Moral Character

Exploring how virtue ethics addresses the Trolley Problem by considering the role of moral character and the virtues in ethical decision-making (Aristotle, 350 BCE; Hursthouse, 1999).

Theoretical Framework

Employing a comparative ethical analysis, this essay investigates how different moral theories can be applied to the Trolley Problem and what these applications reveal about the nature of ethical action.


A philosophical examination of primary texts and secondary literature, analyzing the arguments and counterarguments within the debate surrounding the Trolley Problem.


Utilitarian Calculations and Their Implications

Assessing how utilitarianism justifies redirecting the trolley to minimize loss of life and the moral tensions this creates.

Deontological Constraints and the Sanctity of Life

Evaluating the deontological argument that upholds the moral imperatives and the prohibition against using individuals merely as means to an end.

Virtue Ethics and the Trolley Problem

Considering the perspective of virtue ethics, which may focus less on the action itself and more on what the decision reveals about the moral agent’s character.


Examining the implications of each ethical theory in real-world scenarios that resemble the Trolley Problem, such as triage in medicine, war, and public policy.


The essay concludes that while no single ethical theory provides a definitive solution to the Trolley Problem, the thought experiment underscores the importance of moral reflection in difficult ethical decisions. It suggests that a pluralistic approach, taking into account the insights of multiple ethical theories, may offer a more nuanced framework for navigating moral dilemmas.


(Note: In an academic essay, this section would include formal citations and references to peer-reviewed academic articles, books, and other scholarly sources that have been referenced throughout the essay.)

This academic essay for a Philosophy postgraduate at a top UK university exemplifies a structured and critical approach to a classic ethical dilemma. Through the Trolley Problem, it provides a lens for understanding and evaluating the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of different moral philosophies.

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