Philosophy论文模板 – The Quest for Moral Foundations: An Analysis of Meta-Ethical Theories in the Pursuit of Ethical Absolutism


This essay endeavors to dissect the meta-ethical debate surrounding the existence of objective moral truths, engaging with various meta-ethical theories to assess their claims towards ethical absolutism. It scrutinizes ethical subjectivism, moral realism, and constructivism, considering their philosophical underpinnings and implications for moral discourse and practice. The aim is to shed light on whether moral foundations can be objectively grounded, or if they are ultimately a product of subjective human constructs.


The search for a universal moral compass has long been a subject of philosophical inquiry. Meta-ethics, which examines the nature, scope, and meaning of moral judgements, offers diverse perspectives on whether absolute moral truths exist. This essay critically examines the plausibility of ethical absolutism through the lens of leading meta-ethical theories, exploring the ramifications of each for the possibility of objective morality.

Literature Review

Ethical Subjectivism

Discussing the view that moral values are contingent upon individual feelings or societal norms (Mackie, 1977; Harman, 1975).

Moral Realism

Exploring the arguments for moral realism, which asserts the existence of objective moral facts independent of human opinion (Shafer-Landau, 2003; Brink, 1989).


Analyzing the constructivist claim that moral truths are the product of constructive procedures or practices (Korsgaard, 1996; Rawls, 1980).

Theoretical Framework

The essay is underpinned by an examination of the ontological and epistemological aspects of meta-ethical theories, assessing their ability to justify the existence of moral absolutes.


The paper employs a comparative analysis of scholarly articles, books, and philosophical treatises that have significantly contributed to meta-ethical discourse.


Critique of Ethical Subjectivism

Evaluating the challenges faced by ethical subjectivism in providing a stable foundation for moral judgement and the threat of moral relativism.

Defense of Moral Realism

Investigating the arguments in favor of moral realism, including appeals to intuition, moral disagreement, and the argument from queerness (Moore, 1903).

Constructivism as a Middle Ground

Considering whether constructivism successfully mediates between the extremes of subjectivism and realism by offering a socially grounded yet objective account of morality.


Discussing the implications of each theory for moral discourse, the possibility of moral progress, and the practical consequences of denying or affirming moral absolutes.


Concluding that while each meta-ethical theory offers compelling arguments, the search for a definitive grounding for ethical absolutism remains inconclusive. The essay suggests that the tension between these theories reflects the complex nature of moral phenomena and underscores the need for ongoing philosophical engagement with moral foundations.


(Note: In an academic essay, this section would include formal citations and references to peer-reviewed academic articles, books, and other scholarly sources that have been referenced throughout the essay.)

This academic essay template for a Philosophy postgraduate at a top UK university provides an insightful exploration of the meta-ethical landscape. It assesses the viability of ethical absolutism through a critical comparison of major meta-ethical theories, engaging with the philosophical arguments and counterarguments that have shaped contemporary moral philosophy.

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