Political Science论文模板 – The Dilemma of Democratic Backsliding in the 21st Century: Causes and Responses


This essay explores the phenomenon of democratic backsliding, a critical challenge facing numerous democracies in the 21st century. It seeks to understand the causes of this regression, its manifestations across various political contexts, and the potential responses from the international community and domestic actors. By synthesizing theoretical insights and empirical evidence, the essay argues that democratic backsliding is multifaceted and requires a coordinated approach to safeguard democratic norms and institutions.


In recent years, the erosion of democratic principles and institutions has emerged as a pressing concern in both established and nascent democracies. This essay examines the patterns of democratic backsliding, identifies its principal drivers, and evaluates the efficacy of responses aimed at reversing this trend.

Literature Review

Defining Democratic Backsliding

Conceptualizing democratic backsliding by reviewing the definitions offered by scholars such as Bermeo (2016) and Huq and Ginsburg (2018), and identifying common indicators of this phenomenon.

Causes of Democratic Backsliding

Analyzing the various attributed causes, including economic factors, populist movements, and the role of external actors, drawing on the works of Levitsky and Ziblatt (2018) and Mudde (2016).

International and Domestic Responses

Discussing the range of responses to democratic backsliding, from sanctions and diplomatic pressure to civil society mobilization, as explored by Donno (2013) and Greskovits (2015).

Theoretical Framework

The essay is anchored in the theory of democratic consolidation and survival, incorporating the perspectives of Linz and Stepan (1996) and Schedler (2001).


Employing a comparative case study approach, the essay analyzes instances of democratic backsliding in various regions, including Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. The methodology combines qualitative analysis of political developments with quantitative data on democratic indicators.

Case Studies

Hungary and Poland

Investigating the democratic backsliding seen in Hungary and Poland, focusing on the weakening of judicial independence and media freedom.


Analyzing the decline of Venezuelan democracy, considering the interplay of economic collapse, political polarization, and the dismantling of democratic institutions.

The Philippines

Examining the Philippines’ experience with democratic backsliding in the context of the Duterte administration’s approach to law and order and human rights issues.


Identifying Patterns

Synthesizing insights from the case studies to identify common patterns and triggers of democratic backsliding.

Evaluating Responses

Assessing the effectiveness of various domestic and international responses to counter democratic backsliding, considering both successes and limitations.


Reflecting on the broader implications for the theory and practice of democracy promotion, including the role of multilateral organizations and the balance between intervention and sovereignty.


The essay concludes that democratic backsliding presents a complex challenge that defies simple solutions. It calls for a nuanced understanding of the phenomenon and a multifaceted response that combines international pressure with strong domestic initiatives to protect and revitalize democratic institutions.


(Note: In an actual academic essay, this section would contain formal citations and references to peer-reviewed academic articles, books, and other scholarly sources that have been referenced throughout the essay.)

This example essay is structured to meet the expectations of a master’s level political science program at a leading UK university. It offers a comprehensive analysis of democratic backsliding by incorporating a range of theoretical perspectives, empirical studies, and case analyses, aiming to contribute to the scholarly discussion on one of the most pressing political issues of the 21st century.

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