Political Science论文模板 – The Tug of War: National Sovereignty and Global Governance in the 21st Century


This essay critically examines the tension between national sovereignty and global governance within the context of 21st-century international relations. It investigates the challenges posed by global interdependence and the rise of transnational issues that require cooperation beyond borders, against the backdrop of a reassertion of national sovereignty by states. Drawing on case studies and theoretical insights, the essay explores the complex dynamics between the enduring value of state sovereignty and the evolving demands of global governance mechanisms in addressing global challenges such as climate change, pandemics, and economic globalization.


The concept of national sovereignty has been a bedrock principle of international relations since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. However, the increasing prevalence of issues that transcend national borders has necessitated a reevaluation of this principle in the face of global governance. This essay seeks to dissect the intricate relationship between the sovereignty of states and the burgeoning framework of international cooperation and governance.

Literature Review

Sovereignty in the Modern World

Reviewing the evolution of sovereignty from a Westphalian perspective to its current understanding within the international system (Krasner, 1999; Hinsley, 1986).

Global Governance and Its Discontents

Exploring the development of global governance structures and the criticism they face from various political, economic, and cultural perspectives (Rosenau & Czempiel, 1992; Keohane & Nye, 2000).

Case Studies in Conflict and Cooperation

Analyzing specific instances where the tension between national sovereignty and global governance has been evident, such as in international climate agreements and responses to global health crises (Falkner, 2016; Hanrieder, 2015).

Theoretical Framework

The essay employs a constructivist approach, acknowledging the socially constructed nature of sovereignty and its interaction with global governance institutions (Wendt, 1992).


Using a qualitative methodology, this study conducts a comparative analysis of several case studies where the friction between national sovereignty and global governance is apparent, examining the various outcomes and strategies employed by states and international bodies.


The Climate Change Conundrum

Investigating how international climate agreements challenge state sovereignty while simultaneously requiring sovereign decisions to implement policies that address global environmental issues.

Pandemic Politics and Sovereignty

Examining the dynamics of national responses to global health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and the role of international organizations like the World Health Organization in coordinating these responses.

Economic Globalization vs. National Autonomy

Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and the rise of multinational corporations on the traditional notion of sovereignty, with a focus on trade agreements and the regulation of international finance.


Reflecting on the implications of these case studies for the future of sovereignty and global governance, this section explores potential paths towards reconciling the two constructs in a mutually reinforcing manner.


The essay concludes that while national sovereignty remains a cornerstone of the international system, the rise of transnational challenges necessitates a reimagining of governance that respects state autonomy while enhancing global cooperation. The path forward lies in fostering a dialogue that bridges the gap between these two fundamental principles.


(Note: In an actual academic essay, this section would contain formal citations and references to peer-reviewed academic articles, books, and other scholarly sources that have been referenced throughout the essay.)

In this scholarly essay for a Political Science postgraduate program at a top UK university, the complex interplay between national sovereignty and the mechanisms of global governance is dissected. The work engages with both contemporary challenges and theoretical debates, offering a nuanced view of the evolving landscape of international politics in the 21st century.

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